Plant-pollinator interactions are crucial in the functioning of most terrestrial ecosystems. Nevertheless, it is poorly known how herbivores affect these interactions by altering plant traits important for pollinators, and consequently, how these effects are translated into plant population performance. By combining observational, experimental and modelling approaches, this project will examine the relative effects of floral herbivores and pollinators on individual plant fitness and quantify these effects to population performance. Demographic analyses will also be used to investigate the joint selective pressure by floral herbivores and pollinators on flower traits. Based on simultaneous analyses of the effects of these two important interactions on plant fitness, population models will produce novel information that can be generalised across taxons and used to build conservation strategies for rare plant and pollinator species.